- Acts at al-Kūfa
Maytham al-Tammār al-Asadī al-Kūfī was a devout and loyal companion of Imām ʿAlī(a) . Although there isn't a lot of detailed information available about his life, he is known for being a date-seller in Kūfa who had many outstanding qualities. Maytham was executed by the Ummayad governor before the Event of Karbala.
He was a member of Shurṭat al-Khamīs (the special Guards of Imām ʿAlī(a)), who pledged themselves to fight with Imām ʿAlī(a) in all battles and support him in all hardships.
After the martyrdom of Imām ʿAlī(a), Maytham became a devout companion of Imām al-Ḥasan(a) and Imām al-Ḥusayn(a). Imām al-Ḥusayn was affectionate towards Maytham and treated him kindly.
Imām ʿAlī(a) had promised Maytham a high level in paradise beside himself for his resistance against the governor of Kūfa, ʿUbayd Allāh b. Zīyād. The Imām had also informed Maytham of his martyrdom, the name of his killer, and the story of his execution on a palm tree. He even showed him the exact tree on which he was going to be hung. It is reported that Maytham prayed beside that tree, watered it and talked to it.
After being hung, Maytham called people loudly to gather around him and listen to some narrations from Imām ʿAlī(a). He then talked about the virtues of Banū Hāshim and the evil of the Umayyads.
When Ibn Zīyād was informed of this, he ordered a leash to be put on his mouth. Maytham was the first martyr to be leashed in Islam. According to other reports, Ibn Hurayth suggested cutting his tongue, and Maytham reminded people of Imām ʿAlī's prediction. His tongue was then cut off by an agent of Ibn Zīyād.
Some sources report that after being hung, he was struck by a spear in his stomach, and said, “Allah-u Akbar” before blood gushed out from his mouth and nose. He passed away in Dhū l-Ḥijja, before the arrival of Imām al-Ḥusayn(a) in Iraq.
Ziyārah of Maytham al-Tammār
اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أيُّهَا الْعَبْدُ الصَّالِحُ يَا مَيثَمَ بِنَ يَحيَى التَـمَّار
alssalāmu `alayka ayyuhā al`abdu al¥¥āli¦u ya maytham ibna yahya al-tammār
Peace be upon you, O righteous servant (of Allāh), O Maytham son of Yahya al-Tammār
المُطِيعُ لله وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِأَمِيرِ المُؤمِنِينَ وَلِفَاطِمَةَ وَالحَسَنِ وَالحُسَينِ(صَلَوَاتُ الله وَسَلَامُهُ عَلَيهِم)
almutee’u lillāhi wa liras£lih¢ wa li'am¢ri almu’min¢na wa li fāṭima wal¦asani wal¦usayni ṣalawātullahi wa salāmuhu `alayhim
who acted obediently for the sake of Allāh, His Messenger, the Commander of the Faithful, Fāṭima, al-Ḥasan, and Al-Ḥusayn, peace be upon them.
أشْهَدُ أنَّكَ قَدْ أقَمْتَ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَيْتَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأمَرْتَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَيْتَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ
ashhadu annaka qad aqamta al¥¥alāta wa ātayta alzzakāta wa amarta bilma`r£fi wa nahayta `an almunkari
I bear witness that you performed the prayers, defrayed the poor-rate, enjoined the right, forbade the wrong,
وَجَاهَدْتَ فِي الله حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ وَعَمِلْتَ بِكِتَابِهِ مُقْتَدِيَاً بِالصَّالحِيِنَ وَمُتَّبِعَاً لِلنَبِيِّين
wa jāhadta f¢ allāhi ¦aqqa jihādih¢ wa `amilta bi kitābihi muqtadiyan bil ṣāliḥīn wa muttabi`an lil nabiyyīn
strove in the way of Allāh as it ought to be striven, and abided by His book, following in the footsteps of the pious ones and adhering (to the teachings) of the prophets
وأشْهَدُ أنَّكَ قُتِلْتَ مَظْلُوماً شَهِيدَاً فَلَعَنَ الله مَنْ ظَلَمَكَ وَمَنْ إِفَتَرَى عَلَيْكَ
wa ashhadu annaka qutilta maẓlūman shahīdan fa la`anallahu man ẓalamaka wa man iftara `alaya
I bear witness that you were martyred unjustly, may Allāh curse those who oppressed you and accused you falsely
وَلَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ نَصَبَ لَكَ العَدَاوَةَ وَالبَغْضَاءَ إِلَى يَوْمِ القِيَامَةِ وَحَشَا اللهُ قُبُورَهَم نَارَاً وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابَاً أَلِيماً
wa la`anallahu man nasaba lakal `adāwata bal baghdā’ ila yawmil qiyāma wa ḥasha quburahom nāran wa `a`dda lahom `athāban `alīma
May Allāh curse your enemies till the Day of Judgement and may He fill their graves with fire and prepare for them a painful punishment
جِئْتُكَ أَيُّهَا العَبْدُ الصَالِحُ زَائِرَاً قَبْرَكَ مُقِرَّاً بِحَقِّكَ مُعْتَرِفَاً بِفَضْلِكَ
ji`tuka ayyuhal `abdul ṣāliḥu za`iran qabraka muqirran bi ḥaqqika mu`tarifan bi fadlik
I have come to you O’ pious servant, visiting your grave while recognising your right and adhering to your grace
أَسْأَلُ اللهَ بِالشَأْنِ الذِي لَكَ عِنْدَهُ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
as’alu allāha bilshsha’ni alladh¢ laka `indah£ an yu¥alliya `alā muḥammadin wa āli muḥammadin
I ask Allāh in the name of the standing that you enjoy with Him to send his blessings upon Muḥammad and his family
وَأَنْ يَقْضِيَ حَوَائِجَنَا فِي الدُنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَيَجْمَعَنَا وَإِيَّاكُم فِي زُمْرَةِ الفَائِزِينَ مَعَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِهِ الطَاهِرِينَ
wa an yaqdi ḥawa`ijana fil dunya wal `ākhira wa yajma`ana wa iyyakum f¢ zumrat alfa`izīn ma` muḥammadin wa `aalihi altāhirīn
and fulfil our needs in this world and the next, and unite us amongst the successful ones with Muḥammad and his purified household
وَاَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا الشَّهِيدُ وَرَحْمَةُ الله وَبَرَكَاتُهُ
wasalamu `alayka ayyuhal shahīdu wa raḥmatullahi wa barakatuh
Peace and blessings be upon you O martyr
You may then offer a two-unit prayer and present it as a gift to Maytham al-Tammār.